Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus paracasei interactions through the lens of an agent-based model
The oral commensal Streptococcus oralis is known to increase the virulence of Candida albicans infections in murine oral candidiasis and epithelial cell models through mechanisms which promote the formation of tissue-damaging biofilms. Many probiotic Lactobacillus species are known to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus species. We used an iterative collaborative process between experimentation and modeling to create and test a three-dimensional agent-based model containing L. paracasei and S. oralis in a biofilm. The model included growth, division, decay, and mechanical interactions of each individual bacterium in the biofilm. Through this process, the mostly unexplored relationship between S. oralis and L. paracasei in biofilm growth has been investigated to reveal the inhibitory nature of L. paracasei on S. oralis biofilms.